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20018年6月英语四级考试试题

时间:2018-11-29 19:21:55  来源:  作者:
  Part I Writing  (30 minutes)
  
  Free Admission to Museums
  
  1. 越来越多的博物馆免费对外开放的目的是什么
  
  2. 也会带来一些问题
  
  3. 你的看法
  
  Part II Reading Comprehension (Skimming and
  
  Scanning) (15 minutes)
  
  How Do you
  
  See Diversity?
  
  As a manager, Tiffany is responsible for
  
  interviewing applicants for some of the positions
  
  with her company. During one interview, she
  
  noticed that the candidate never made direct eye
  
  contact. She was puzzled and somewhat disappointed
  
  because she liked the individual otherwise.
  
  He had a perfect resume and gave good responses
  
  to her questions, but the fact that he never
  
  looked her in the eye said “untrustworthy,” so she
  
  decided to offer the job to her second choice.
  
  “It wasn’t until I attended a diversity
  
  workshop that I realized the person we passed over
  
  was the perfect person.” Tiffany confesses. What
  
  she hadn’t known at the time of the interview was
  
  that the candidate’s “different” behavior was
  
  simply a cultural misunderstanding. He was an
  
  Asian-American raised in a household where respect
  
  for those in authority was shown by averting(避开)
  
  your eyes.
  
  “I was just thrown off by the lack of eye
  
  contact; not realizing it was cultural,” Tiffany
  
  says. “I missed out, but will not miss that
  
  opportunity again.”
  
  Many of us have had similar encounters with
  
  behaviors we perceive as different. As the world
  
  becomes smaller and our workplaces more diverse,
  
  it is becoming essential to expand our
  
  understanding of others and to reexamine some of
  
  our false assumptions .
  
  Hire Advantage
  
  At a time when hiring qualified people is
  
  becoming more difficult, employers who can
  
  eliminate invalid biases(偏见) from the process have
  
  a distinct advantage. My company, Mindsets LLC,
  
  helps organizations and individuals see their own
  
  blind spots. A real estate recruiter we worked
  
  with illustrates the positive difference such
  
  training can make.
  
  “During my Mindsets coaching session, I was
  
  taught how to recruit a diversified workforce. I
  
  recruited people from different cultures and skill
  
  sets. The agents were able to utilize their full
  
  potential and experiences to build up the company.
  
  When the real estate market began to change, it
  
  was because we had a diverse agent pool that we
  
  were able to stay in the real estate market much
  
  longer than others in the same profession.”
  
  Blinded by Gender
  
  Dale is an account executive who attended one
  
  of my workshops on supervising a diverse
  
  workforce. “Through one of the sessions, I
  
  discovered my personal bias,” he recalls. “I
  
  learned I had not been looking at a person as a
  
  whole person, and being open to differences.” In
  
  his case, the blindness was not about culture but
  
  rather gender
  
  “ I had a management position open in my
  
  department; and the two finalists were a man and a
  
  woman. Had I not attended this workshop, I would
  
  have automatically assumed the man was the best
  
  candidate because the position required quite a
  
  bit of extensive travel. My reasoning would have
  
  been that even though both candidates were great
  
  and could have been successful in the position, I
  
  assumed the woman would have wanted to be home
  
  with her children and not travel.” Dale’s
  
  assumptions are another example of the
  
  well-intentioned but incorrect thinking that
  
  limits an organization’s ability to tap into the
  
  full potential of a diverse workforce.
  
  “I learned from the class that instead of
  
  imposing my gender biases into the situation, I
  
  needed to present the full range of duties,
  
  responsibilities and expectations to all
  
  candidates and allow them to make an informed
  
  decision.” Dale credits the workshop, “because it
  
  helped me make decisions based on fairness.”
  
  Year of the Know –It –All[!
  
  Doug is another supervisor who attended one of
  
  my workshops. He recalls a major lesson learned
  
  form his own employee.
  
  “One of my most embarrassing moments was when I
  
  had a Chinese-American employee put in a request
  
  to take time off to celebrate Chinese New Year. In
  
  my ignorance, I assumed he had his dates wrong, as
  
  the first of January had just passed. When I
  
  advised him of this, I gave him a long talking-to
  
  about turning in requests early with the proper
  
  dates.
  
  “He patiently waited, then when I was done, he
  
  said he would like Chinese New Year off, not the
  
  Western New Year. He explained politely that in
  
  his culture the new year did not begin January
  
  first, and that Chinese New year, which is tied to
  
  the lunar cycle, is one of the most celebrated
  
  holidays on the Chinese calendar. Needless to say,
  
  I felt very embarrassed in assuming he had his
  
  dates mixed up. But I learned a great deal about
  
  assumptions, and that the timing of holidays
  
  varies considerably form culture to culture
  
  “Attending the diversity workshop helped me
  
  realize how much I could learn by simply asking
  
  questions and creating dialogues with my
  
  employees, rather that making assumptions and
  
  trying to be a know-it-all,” Doug admits, “The
  
  biggest thing I took away from the workshop is
  
  learning how to be more ‘inclusive’ to
  
  differences.”
  
  A Better Bottom Line
  
  An open mind about diversity not only improves
  
  organizations internally, it is profitable as
  
  well. These comments from a customer service
  
  representative show how an inclusive attitude can
  
  improve sales. “Most of my customers speak English
  
  as a second language. One of the best things my
  
  company has done is to contract with a language
  
  service that offers translations over the phone.
  
  It wasn’t until my boss received Mindsets’
  
  training that she was able to understand how
  
  important inclusiveness was to customer service.
  
  As a result, our customer base has increased.”
  
  Once we start to see people as individuals, and
  
  discard the stereotypes, we can move positively
  
  toward inclusiveness for everyone. Diversity is
  
  about coming together and taking advantage of our
  
  differences and similarities. It is about building
  
  better communities and organizations that enhance
  
  us as individuals and reinforce our shared
  
  humanity.
  
  When we begin to question our assumptions and
  
  challenge what we think we have learned from our
  
  past, from the media, peers, family, friends, etc,
  
  we begin to realize that some of our conclusions
  
  are flawed (有缺陷的) or contrary to our fundamental
  
  values. We need to train ourselves to think
  
  differently, shift our mindsets and realize that
  
  diversity opens doors for all of us, creating
  
  opportunities in organizations and communities
  
  that benefit everyone.
  
  1. What bothered Tiffany during an interview with
  
  her candidate?
  
  A) He just wouldn’t look her in the eyes.
  
  B) He was slow in answering her
  
  questions.
  
  C) His resume didn’t provide the necessary
  
  information      D) His answers to some of her
  
  questions were irrelevant.
  
  2. Tiffany’s misjudgment about the candidate
  
  stemmed from__________.
  
  A) racial stereotypes
  
  B) invalid personal bias
  
  C) cultural ignorance
  
  D) emphasis on physical appearance
  
  3. What is becoming essential in the course of
  
  economic globalization according to the author?
  
  A)Hiring qualified technical and management
  
  personnel.        B) Increasing understanding of
  
  people of other cultures.
  
  C) Constantly updating knowledge and equipment.
  
  D) Expanding domestic and international
  
  markets.
  
  4. What kind of organization is Mindsets LLC?
  
  A) A real estate agency.
  
  B) A personnel training company.
  
  C) A cultural exchange organization.
  
  D) A hi-tech company.
  
  5. After one of the workshops, account executive
  
  Dale realized that_____________.
  
  A) he had hired the wrong person
  
  B) he could have done more for his
  
  company
  
  C) he had not managed his workforce well
  
  D) he must get rid of his gender bias
  
  6. What did Dale think of Mindsets LLC’s workshop?
  
  A) It was well-intentioned but poorly conducted.
  
  B) It tapped into the executives’
  
  full potential.
  
  C) It helped him make fair decisions.
  
  D) It met participants’ diverse needs.
  
  7. How did Doug, a supervisor, respond to a
  
  Chinese-American employee’s request for leave?
  
  A) He told him to get the dates right.
  
  B) He demanded an explanation.
  
  C) He flatly turned it down.
  
  D) He readily approved it
  
  8. Doug felt_________ when he realized that his
  
  assumption was wrong.
  
  9. After attending Mindsets’ workshops, the
  
  participants came to know the importance of
  
  ________ to their business.
  
  10. When we view people as individuals and get rid
  
  of stereotypes, we can achieve diversity and
  
  benefit from the _____between us.
  
  Part III Listening Comprehension (35 minutes)
  
  Section A
  
  11. A) She expected more people at her party.
  
  B) She enjoys entertaining small
  
  children.
  
  C) She threw a surprise party for her friend..
  
  D) She has always enjoyed great
  
  popularity.
  
  12. A) They are not used to living in a cold
  
  place.             B) They feel lucky to live in
  
  Florida.
  
  C) They are going to have a holiday.
  
  D) They have not booked their air tickets
  
  yet.
  
  13. A) He was pleased to get the medal.
  
  B) He was very courageous.
  
  C) He used to be a firefighter.
  
  D) He was accused of causing a fire.
  
  14. A) Make a profitable investment.
  
  B) Buy a new washing machine.
  
  C) Get parts for the machine from Japan.
  
  D) Have the old washing machine fixed.
  
  15. A) He is pleased with his exciting new job.
  
  B) He finds the huge workload
  
  unbearable.
  
  C) He finds his office much too big for him.
  
  D) He is not so excited about his new
  
  position.
  
  16. A) The woman is going to hold a big party
  
  tomorrow.      B) The man has no idea what the
  
  right thing to do is.
  
  C) The woman doesn’t know to get to the party.
  
  D) The man offers to drive the woman to
  
  the party.
  
  17. A) Drawing up a business plan.
  
  B) Discussing a term paper.
  
  C) Finalizing a contract.
  
  D) Reviewing a co-authored article.
  
  18. A) She ordered some paper.
  
  B) She had the printer repaired.
  
  C) She chatted online with a friend.
  
  D) She filled in an application form.
  
  Questions 19 to 22 are based on the conversation
  
  you have just heard.
  
  19. A) His health is getting worse.
  
  B) He can no longer work at sea.
  
  C) His past life upsets him a good deal.
  
  D) He has not got the expected
  
  pension.
  
  20. A) She passed away years ago.
  
  B) She used to work as a model.
  
  C) She has been working at a clinic.
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